american jurisprudence, second edition

database updated may 2003


municipal, county, school, and state tort liability


topic summary; parallel references; list of topics; index



topic contents



i. immunity, in general

  a. overview and background (ss 1 to 11)

  b. immunity of municipality or county

    1. in general (ss 12 to 15)

    2. validity of immunity (ss 16 to 19)

    3. judicial abrogation or limitation of immunity

              a. in general (ss 20, 21)

              b. prospective or retroactive effect of abrogation (ss 22, 23)

    4. statutory abrogation, waiver, or reinstatement of immunity

              a. in general (ss 24 to 26)

              b. statute applicable to other division of government (s 27)

    5. liability or indemnity insurance affecting immunity (ss 28 to 31)

  c. immunity of schools and related bodies (ss 32 to 36)

  d. immunity of state

    1. in general (ss 37 to 40)

    2. statutory abrogation, waiver, or reinstatement of immunity

              a. in general (ss 41 to 44)

              b. statute with specific objective or purpose (ss 45, 46)


ii. immunity affected by nature of act or function

  a. governmental or proprietary distinction

    1. in general (s 47)

    2. immunity of particular government entities (ss 48 to 52)

    3. definitions and standards for applying distinction

              a. in general (ss 53, 54)

              b. general benefit to public versus special benefit to government (ss 55 to 58)

              c. other factors, tests, or circumstances (ss 59 to 64)

    4. abrogation, limitation, or reinstatement of distinction (ss 65, 66)

  b. discretionary or ministerial distinction

    1. in general; immunity of particular government entities (ss 67 to 70)

    2. basis, purposes, and objectives of immunity (s 71)

    3. definitions and standards for applying distinction

              a. in general (ss 72 to 77)

              b. planning or operational distinction (ss 78 to 80)

              c. basis or nature of duty (ss 81, 82)

              d. exception for abuse of discretion, unreasonableness, or wrongdoing (s 83)

  c. the special relationship/public duty exception to immunity (ss 84 to 90)


iii. bases of liability

  a. liability under tort claims acts, in general

    1. overview (ss 91, 92)

    2. permissible causes of action (ss 93 to 96)

  b. strict liability in tort (ss 97, 98)

  c. liability for negligence

    1. essential elements of negligence

              a. in general (s 99)

              b. duty

              (1).. in general (ss 100, 101)

              (2).. general duty/special duty dichotomy (ss 102 to 106)

              c. standard of care (ss 107, 108)

              d. damage or injury proximately caused (s 109)

    2. other bases of liability for negligence (ss 110 to 112)

    3. defenses or exceptions to liability

              a. in general (ss 113 to 115)

              b. legal authority for act or function (ss 116 to 118)

  d. liability for maritime torts (s 119)

  e. liability for creation or maintenance of nuisance

    1. liability of particular government entities (ss 120 to 123)

    2. nature of act or function; authorization by law (ss 124 to 126)

    3. nature of injury or damage (ss 127, 128)

    4. elements, prerequisites, and limitations of liability for nuisance (ss 129 to 135)

  f. liability for failure to abate nuisance (ss 136, 137)

  g. liability for libel and slander; defamation (ss 138, 139)

  h. liability for intentional torts (ss 140 to 144)

  i. respondeat superior; liability for acts of officers, agents, or employees

    1. in general; definitions and distinctions (ss 145, 146)

    2. liability of particular government entities (ss 147 to 151)

    3. essential elements of liability under respondeat superior (ss 152 to 157)

    4. exceptions to liability under respondeat superior (ss 158 to 166)

    5. ratification as basis of liability (s 167)


iv. liability for particular acts or omissions of government

  a. enactment or enforcement of law

    1. in general (ss 168 to 172)

    2. failure to enact or enforce (ss 173 to 177)

    3. grant, denial, or revocation of license, permit, or franchise (ss 178 to 182)

    4. particular laws or ordinances (ss 183 to 186)

  b. operation or regulation of motor vehicles

    1. licensing or regulation of drivers (ss 187 to 191)

    2. municipal parking facilities (ss 192, 193)

    3. government motor vehicles

              a. in general (ss 194 to 196)

              b. liability under statute (ss 197 to 200)

              c. admissibility of municipality's safety rules (ss 201 to 206)

    4. other particular bases of liability for motor vehicles (ss 207 to 209)

  c. garbage collection, removal, and disposal

    1. in general (ss 210 to 214)

    2. maintenance and operation of incinerators, disposal plants, and public dumps

              a. in general (ss 215 to 217)

              b. liability based on nuisance, in general (ss 218 to 223)

              c. nuisance in fact (ss 224 to 231)

              d. incinerator as nuisance (ss 232 to 234)

  d. construction, operation, management, or use of buildings or property

    1. in general (ss 235, 236)

    2. dangerous conditions of public property

              a. in general (ss 237 to 239)

              b. public property defined; ownership or control (ss 240 to 244)

              c. dangerous condition defined (ss 245 to 248)

              d. elements of knowledge, foreseeability, and notice (ss 249 to 251)

              e. particular conditions, activities, or omissions (ss 252 to 256)

    3. public buildings

              a. in general (ss 257 to 263)

              b. liability for injuries or damage in particular buildings or areas (ss 264 to 268)

    4. public utilities (ss 269 to 271)

    5. public bathing and swimming facilities

              a. governmental or proprietary distinction (ss 272 to 275)

              b. other particular bases of liability (ss 276 to 279)

              c. failure to provide supervision, warning, or protection (ss 280 to 289)

    6. construction, maintenance, and repair of public improvements

              a. in general (ss 290 to 295)

              b. legislative or statutory authorization for improvement (ss 296 to 300)

  e. construction, maintenance, or use of sewers, drains, or waterways

    1. in general (ss 301 to 312)

    2. defective or inefficient plan of sewerage or drainage system

              a. in general (ss 313 to 315)

              b. bases of liability (ss 316 to 326)

    3. construction of drains and sewers

              a. in general (ss 327 to 335)

              b. particular circumstances or facilities (ss 336 to 338)

    4. maintenance and repair of sewers and drains

              a. liability for negligence (ss 339 to 343)

              b. liability for nuisance (ss 344, 345)

              c. particular circumstances or facilities (ss 346 to 348)

              d. obstruction or clogging of drains or sewers

              (1).. in general (ss 349 to 359)

              (2).. particular circumstances or facilities (ss 360 to 364)

    5. flooding; wrongful discharge of water or sewage (ss 365 to 370)

    6. sewage disposal plants

              a. generally (ss 371, 372)

              b. liability for nuisance

              (1).. in general (ss 373 to 376)

              (2).. particular circumstances or factors affecting liability (ss 377 to 384)

    7. watercourses, surface waters, ponds, and reservoirs

              a. in general (ss 385, 386)

              b. surface waters (ss 387 to 393)

  f. crime prevention and control

    1. in general (ss 394 to 397)

    2. respondeat superior as basis of liability (ss 398 to 403)

    3. condition of station or building of law enforcement agency or department (s 404)

    4. hiring, training, and supervision of officers (ss 405, 406)

    5. failure to provide protection from crime

              a. in general (ss 407 to 409)

              b. duty from special relationship to crime victim (ss 410 to 418)

    6. failure to investigate crime (ss 419, 420)

    7. arrest, detention, or imprisonment of person

              a. in general (ss 421, 422)

              b. failure to arrest or detain person (ss 423 to 427)

              c. false arrest, detention, or imprisonment (s 428)

    8. use of excessive force

              a. governmental bodies subject to liability (ss 429 to 431)

              b. particular bases of liability for use of excessive force (ss 432 to 434)

    9. use of motor vehicles and other transportation facilities

              a. in general (ss 435 to 438)

              b. chase or pursuit of suspected criminal or law-breaker (ss 439 to 443)

              c. other particular bases of liability (ss 444 to 446)

  g. fire prevention and control

    1. immunity, generally (ss 447 to 450)

    2. failure to provide fire protection (ss 451 to 453)

    3. failure to extinguish fires (ss 454, 455)

    4. failure to inspect property and prevent fire hazards (ss 456 to 458)

    5. use of fire control vehicles and other means of transportation (ss 459 to 465)

    6. adequacy of water supply or pressure for fire control

              a. in general (ss 466, 467)

              b. municipal ownership and operation of water supply (ss 468 to 471)

    7. other particular matters affecting immunity or liability (ss 472 to 478)

  h. operation of public schools

    1. exceptions and limitations affecting immunity or liability

              a. statutes affecting immunity or liability (ss 479 to 487)

              b. particular functions as governmental or proprietary (ss 488 to 496)

              c. nuisances resulting in injury or damage (ss 497 to 499)

              d. active or positive wrongs; willful or intentional misconduct (s 500)

    2. liability under particular circumstances

              a. supervision of students (ss 501 to 510)

              b. condition of buildings or equipment (ss 511 to 516)

              c. condition of grounds, walks, and playgrounds

              (1).. in general (ss 517 to 523)

              (2).. particular factors affecting liability (ss 524 to 528)

              d. use of premises and equipment for other than school purposes (ss 529 to 533)

              e. transportation of students

              (1).. in general (ss 534 to 536)

              (2).. particular factors affecting liability (ss 537 to 540)

              (3).. particular conditions and circumstances (ss 541 to 544)

              f. physical education class

              (1).. in general (ss 545 to 553)

              (2).. particular activities (ss 554 to 557)

              g. school athletic events (ss 558 to 561)

              h. chemistry experiments, shop work, and manual or vocational training

              (1).. in general (ss 562 to 567)

              (2).. particular accidents or injuries (ss 568, 569)

              i. acts of fellow students (ss 570 to 574)

              j. criminal acts by non-students (ss 575, 576)

              k. educational malpractice (ss 577 to 579)

              l. hiring or retaining incompetent or unsuitable teacher (s 580)

    3. personal liability of school personnel for personal injury or death of student

              a. teachers (ss 581 to 585)

              b. school executive or administrative officers (ss 586 to 589)

              c. other school employees (ss 590, 591)

  i. other particular acts or omissions (ss 592 to 602)


v. practice and procedure

  a. in general; jurisdiction (ss 603 to 606)

  b. venue (ss 607 to 609)

  c. parties (ss 610 to 614)

  d. pleading; process and service

    1. in general (ss 615, 616)

    2. complaint (ss 617 to 620)

    3. answer (ss 621 to 623)

    4. amendment of pleadings (ss 624 to 627)

  e. evidence (ss 628 to 631)

  f. damages

    1. in general (ss 632, 633)

    2. statutory limitation on amount and nature of damages

              a. in general (ss 634 to 641)

              b. limit applicable to damages recoverable or recovered; apportionment (ss 642 to 645)

              c. jury instructions; claims and evidence (ss 646, 647)

    3. exemplary or punitive damages (ss 648 to 653)

  g. judgment (ss 654, 655)



i. immunity, in general

  a. overview and background

    § 1. generally

    § 2. public policy underlying sovereign or governmental immunity

    § 3. applicable tort actions

    § 4. scope of state immunity laws; impact on federal actions

    § 5. --constitutional claims

    § 6. --other civil actions

    § 7. public entities defined

    § 8. --examples of public entities

    § 9. actions against government employees as considered against the state

    § 10. sovereign and governmental immunity distinguished

    § 11. immunity and liability distinguished

  b. immunity of municipality or county

    1. in general

              § 12. generally

              § 13. --separate bases for municipal and county immunity

              § 14. immunity derived from officer, agent, or employee

              § 15. immunity available to board, agency, employee, or officer

    2. validity of immunity

              § 16. legislative power over conditions of immunity

              § 17. constitutionality of statutes; equal protection and due process

              § 18. --governmental interests or objectives served

              § 19. right of access to courts and remedies

    3. judicial abrogation or limitation of immunity

              a. in general

              § 20. generally

              § 21. judicial deference to legislature

              b. prospective or retroactive effect of abrogation

              § 22. generally

              § 23. rationale for prospective or retroactive abrogation

    4. statutory abrogation, waiver, or reinstatement of immunity

              a. in general

              § 24. generally

              § 25. requisites for sufficient statutory waiver or abrogation

              § 26. construction, interpretation, and effect of immunity

              b. statute applicable to other division of government

              § 27. municipality or county under state immunity statute

    5. liability or indemnity insurance affecting immunity

              § 28. generally

              § 29. participation in risk pools

              § 30. scope of waiver or estoppel; prospective effect

              § 31. self-insurance or failure to insure

  c. immunity of schools and related bodies

    § 32. generally

    § 33. basis of immunity

    § 34. immunity of school officers, teachers, or employees from personal liability

    § 35. immunity limited to ordinary negligence

    § 36. insurance as abrogating immunity

  d. immunity of state

    1. in general

              § 37. generally

              § 38. state constitutional provision on immunity

              § 39. scope of state immunity

              § 40. --state as party in court of another state; extraterritorial activities

    2. statutory abrogation, waiver, or reinstatement of immunity

              a. in general

              § 41. generally

              § 42. validity of statute

              § 43. construction of waiver statute

              § 44. --rules of construction

              b. statute with specific objective or purpose

              § 45. capacity to sue and be sued under statute

              § 46. special act or resolution; claims bill


ii. immunity affected by nature of act or function

  a. governmental or proprietary distinction

    1. in general

              § 47. generally

    2. immunity of particular government entities

              § 48. municipal corporations

              § 49. counties

              § 50. towns, townships, and cities

              § 51. schools and related bodies

              § 52. --immunity regardless of function

    3. definitions and standards for applying distinction

              a. in general

              § 53. generally

              § 54. particular act or function as focus of inquiry

              b. general benefit to public versus special benefit to government

              § 55. generally

              § 56. pecuniary benefit; income or revenue

              § 57. examples of governmental functions

              § 58. examples of proprietary functions

              c. other factors, tests, or circumstances

              § 59. dual nature of act or function

              § 60. uniquely governmental act or function; essence of governing

              § 61. duty for act or function imposed or authorized by law

              § 62. --act or function as agent of state

              § 63. statutory declaration of nature of act or function

              § 64. voluntary act or function

    4. abrogation, limitation, or reinstatement of distinction

              § 65. judicial abrogation

              § 66. statutory abrogation, limitation, or reinstatement

  b. discretionary or ministerial distinction

    1. in general; immunity of particular government entities

              § 67. generally

              § 68. counties

              § 69. schools and related bodies

              § 70. states; state agencies, instrumentalities, or municipalities

    2. basis, purposes, and objectives of immunity

              § 71. separation of powers

    3. definitions and standards for applying distinction

              a. in general

              § 72. general approach; construction or interpretation

              § 73. definition of discretionary act or function

              § 74. --proof of discretionary acts

              § 75. --examples of discretionary acts

              § 76. definition of ministerial act or function

              § 77. --examples of ministerial acts

              b. planning or operational distinction

              § 78. generally

              § 79. particular tests for planning or operational distinction

              § 80. actual exercise of discretion or policy evaluation

              c. basis or nature of duty

              § 81. mandatory duties as imposed by law

              § 82. --determining nature of duty under law

              d. exception for abuse of discretion, unreasonableness, or wrongdoing

              § 83. generally

  c. the special relationship/public duty exception to immunity

    § 84. generally; the special relationship exception

    § 85. application of special relationship exception

    § 86. proof of special relationship

    § 87. exceptions to the "special relationship" doctrine

    § 88. the public duty doctrine

    § 89. inapplicability of the public duty doctrine; special duty rule

    § 90. judicial construction of the public duty doctrine


iii. bases of liability

  a. liability under tort claims acts, in general

    1. overview

              § 91. generally

              § 92. liability permitted by removing immunity

    2. permissible causes of action

              § 93. generally; causes of action based on common law or statute

              § 94. novel or unique causes of action

              § 95. relationship to other statutory causes of action

              § 96. contractual or quasi-contractual causes of action

  b. strict liability in tort

    § 97. generally

    § 98. dangerous conditions, agents, or instrumentalities

  c. liability for negligence

    1. essential elements of negligence

              a. in general

              § 99. generally

              b. duty

              (1).. in general

              § 100. generally

              § 101. immunity or absence of duty for particular act or function

              (2).. general duty/special duty dichotomy

              § 102. generally

              § 103. basis or purpose of rule

              § 104. special relationship as test for duty

              § 105. duty imposed by statute, ordinance, or voluntary undertaking

              § 106. rejection of general duty/special duty dichotomy

              c. standard of care

              § 107. ordinary or reasonable care under circumstances

              § 108. heightened standard of care; hazardous or dangerous agents or instrumentality

              d. damage or injury proximately caused

              § 109. generally

    2. other bases of liability for negligence

              § 110. attractive nuisance

              § 111. wrongful death and survival statute

              § 112. --status as corporation or person under death statute

    3. defenses or exceptions to liability

              a. in general

              § 113. contributory negligence; comparative negligence

              § 114. contractual freedom from liability; release

              § 115. interference by paramount authority

              b. legal authority for act or function

              § 116. generally

              § 117. ultra vires acts

              § 118. --manner of performing lawful act; formal defect in authority

  d. liability for maritime torts

    § 119. generally; injury or damage from obstructions in navigable waters

  e. liability for creation or maintenance of nuisance

    1. liability of particular government entities

              § 120. generally; municipal corporations, towns, or villages

              § 121. counties

              § 122. schools and related bodies

              § 123. state; state agencies and instrumentalities

    2. nature of act or function; authorization by law

              § 124. nature of act or function

              § 125. authorization by law

              § 126. --liability for authorizing or licensing nuisance

    3. nature of injury or damage

              § 127. personal injury or death

              § 128. property damage

    4. elements, prerequisites, and limitations of liability for nuisance

              § 129. ownership or control of property or instrumentality

              § 130. danger from condition or location of property

              § 131. damage or injury to ownership interest in property

              § 132. intent or negligence

              § 133. --negligence and nuisance distinguished

              § 134. --affirmative or positive acts; acts of omission

              § 135. statutory duty or declaration of nuisance

  f. liability for failure to abate nuisance

    § 136. duty under general power dependent on knowledge

    § 137. mandatory duty under general power

  g. liability for libel and slander; defamation

    § 138. generally

    § 139. privileged communications

  h. liability for intentional torts

    § 140. generally

    § 141. fraud, deceit, or misrepresentation

    § 142. wrongful legal proceedings; malicious prosecution

    § 143. false arrest or imprisonment

    § 144. intentional infliction of emotional distress

  i. respondeat superior; liability for acts of officers, agents, or employees

    1. in general; definitions and distinctions

              § 145. generally; definition

              § 146. distinguishing acts or omissions of government from its officers, agents, or employees

    2. liability of particular government entities

              § 147. municipal corporations

              § 148. towns and townships

              § 149. counties

              § 150. schools and related bodies

              § 151. state; state agencies, and instrumentalities

    3. essential elements of liability under respondeat superior

              § 152. employer-employee or agent-principal relationship

              § 153. --authority for election or appointment to office

              § 154. --state, county, or municipality as principal or employer

              § 155. acts or omissions in course of employment and scope of authority

              § 156. --tests for course of employment and scope of authority

              § 157. --question of law or fact; construction or interpretation

    4. exceptions to liability under respondeat superior

              § 158. unauthorized or unlawful acts

              § 159. ultra vires acts

              § 160. intentional torts; acts with criminal intent

              § 161. --bad faith, malicious misconduct, wanton or willful misconduct, reckless misconduct, and gross or wanton negligence

              § 162. ----definitions

              § 163. acts or omissions of independent contractors

              § 164. --nondelegable duties imposed by law

              § 165. --effect of particular contract provisions

              § 166. acts or omissions of licensees

    5. ratification as basis of liability

              § 167. generally


iv. liability for particular acts or omissions of government

  a. enactment or enforcement of law

    1. in general

              § 168. generally

              § 169. immunity under statute

              § 170. invalid ordinances

              § 171. negligent enforcement

              § 172. enforceability against enacting municipality

    2. failure to enact or enforce

              § 173. generally

              § 174. immunity under statute

              § 175. general duty/special duty dichotomy; special relationship test for duty

              § 176. effect of duty to enact or enforce certain ordinances

              § 177. --duty imposed by statute

    3. grant, denial, or revocation of license, permit, or franchise

              § 178. generally

              § 179. nature, source, or conditions of duty

              § 180. express exemption from liability under tort claims act

              § 181. inspection or examination for license, permit, or regulation

              § 182. --nature, source, or conditions of duty

    4. particular laws or ordinances

              § 183. building codes

              § 184. --general duty/special duty dichotomy; special relationship as test for liability

              § 185. health and safety laws

              § 186. miscellaneous laws or ordinances

  b. operation or regulation of motor vehicles

    1. licensing or regulation of drivers

              § 187. liability for issuing license

              § 188. incapable or incompetent drivers

              § 189. uninsured drivers

              § 190. deficiencies in driver's manual

              § 191. improper revocation of driver's license

    2. municipal parking facilities

              § 192. oneet parking meters

              § 193. offeet parking facilities

    3. government motor vehicles

              a. in general

              § 194. generally

              § 195. operation of garage for repair and maintenance of municipal vehicles

              § 196. damages; statutory limitations

              b. liability under statute

              § 197. generally

              § 198. operation of vehicle with permission of entity

              § 199. operation of vehicle in course of employment

              § 200. what is "municipal vehicle" or "motor vehicle" within statute

              c. admissibility of municipality's safety rules

              § 201. generally

              § 202. particular vehicles; police vehicles

              § 203. -eetcars or buses

              § 204. --garbage trucks

              § 205. --other vehicles

              § 206. practice guide

    4. other particular bases of liability for motor vehicles

              § 207. operation of motor vehicle inspection station

              § 208. issuance of defective certificate of title

              § 209. --damages

  c. garbage collection, removal, and disposal

    1. in general

              § 210. generally

              § 211. factors determining governmental or proprietary function; statutory duty

              § 212. --purpose or object of function

              § 213. --deriving revenue from exercise of function

              § 214. operation of motor vehicles used in removal

    2. maintenance and operation of incinerators, disposal plants, and public dumps

              a. in general

              § 215. generally; public dumps

              § 216. incinerators or disposal plants

              § 217. sanitary landfill

              b. liability based on nuisance, in general

              § 218. generally

              § 219. contribution by others to injury

              § 220. --contributory negligence of plaintiff

              § 221. anticipatory or threatened nuisance

              § 222. damages

              § 223. --due compensation for taking property

              c. nuisance in fact

              § 224. generally

              § 225. burning of garbage and refuse

              § 226. smoke and odors

              § 227. debris blown or scattered to neighboring property

              § 228. water pollution

              § 229. insects, rodents, and other animals

              § 230. traffic hazards

              § 231. height of waste pile

              d. incinerator as nuisance

              § 232. generally

              § 233. effect of governmental authorization

              § 234. remedies

  d. construction, operation, management, or use of buildings or property

    1. in general

              § 235. generally

              § 236. recreational use statutes

    2. dangerous conditions of public property

              a. in general

              § 237. generally

              § 238. illustrative statute

              § 239. --construction or interpretation of statute

              b. public property defined; ownership or control

              § 240. generally

              § 241. nature of function based on use of property instead of identity of governmental body

              § 242. multiple governmental bodies

              § 243. vacant or abandoned property

              § 244. exclusive possession of property

              c. dangerous condition defined

              § 245. generally

              § 246. --plaintiff's lack of due care

              § 247. wrongful or criminal conduct of third person

              § 248. negligent conduct of third person

              d. elements of knowledge, foreseeability, and notice

              § 249. foreseeable use of property

              § 250. notice of dangerous condition --actual notice

              § 251. --constructive notice

              e. particular conditions, activities, or omissions

              § 252. condition created by reasonable act or omission

              § 253. condition of adjacent property; site of injury

              § 254. natural condition of unimproved property

              § 255. failure to maintain property in accordance with prescribed standards

              § 256. failure to guard against criminal activities on property

    3. public buildings

              a. in general

              § 257. generally

              § 258. use for proprietary functions

              § 259. use for multiple functions

              § 260. pecuniary benefit test

              § 261. --governmental entity as landlord

              § 262. liability under "safe-place" statute

              § 263. status of person injured

              b. liability for injuries or damage in particular buildings or areas

              § 264. public libraries

              § 265. stairwells and stairways

              § 266. corridors, walkways, and passageways

              § 267. floors

              § 268. prisons

    4. public utilities

              § 269. generally

              § 270. --statutory liability for public utilities

              § 271. public transportation system

    5. public bathing and swimming facilities

              a. governmental or proprietary distinction

              § 272. facilities provided free of charge

              § 273. charge of fee without profit

              § 274. facilities where operation yields profit

              § 275. facilities operated under lease or license from government

              b. other particular bases of liability

              § 276. recreational use statutes

              § 277. public swimming pool as nuisance affecting patrons

              § 278. --nuisance affecting nearby landowners

              § 279. liability for dangerous conditions of property

              c. failure to provide supervision, warning, or protection

              § 280. duty of care; generally

              § 281. duty to warn of dangers

              § 282. observed disappearance or struggle in water; failure to provide lifeguard

              § 283. --inadequate lifeguard services

              § 284. unobserved drowning; sufficiency of lifeguard services

              § 285. injuries from collisions between divers and swimmers

              § 286. injuries from boisterous conduct or misconduct

              § 287. failure to fence swimming facility adequately

              § 288. public pier

              § 289. miscellaneous causes of injury

    6. construction, maintenance, and repair of public improvements

              a. in general

              § 290. generally

              § 291. adoption of defective plan or design

              § 292. --palpably defective or unreasonable design

              § 293. duty to warn of danger or abate known danger

              § 294. failure to construct improvements

              § 295. construction of inadequate improvements

              b. legislative or statutory authorization for improvement

              § 296. generally

              § 297. statutory design immunity

              § 298. --basis or rationale for immunity

              § 299. --limitations on immunity

              § 300. duty to act within authorization

  e. construction, maintenance, or use of sewers, drains, or waterways

    1. in general

              § 301. generally

              § 302. sovereign immunity

              § 303. --jurisdictions that distinguish between governmental and proprietary acts

              § 304. --jurisdictions that distinguish between discretionary and ministerial acts

              § 305. exceptions to sovereign immunity

              § 306. liability for nuisance

              § 307. --acts of third parties

              § 308. --failure to abate a nuisance

              § 309. damages; type of injuries or damage covered

              § 310. ----elements, measure, and amount

              § 311. ------checklist

              § 312. --consequential and special damages

    2. defective or inefficient plan of sewerage or drainage system

              a. in general

              § 313. generally

              § 314. adoption of a plan as act of independent body

              § 315. contributory or comparative negligence

              b. bases of liability

              § 316. knowledge that the plans are defective

              § 317. inadequate sewers or drains

              § 318. --palpable inadequacy of sewers or drains

              § 319. --demonstrated inadequacy

              § 320. involvement of skilled advisers or engineers

              § 321. trespass and nuisance

              § 322. obstruction of running streams or natural watercourses

              § 323. extraordinary storms; the "act of god" defense

              § 324. failure to construct

              § 325. --governmental function

              § 326. inadequacy due to growth or development of the area serviced

    3. construction of drains and sewers

              a. in general

              § 327. generally

              § 328. discretionary/ministerial distinction

              § 329. governmental/proprietary distinction

              § 330. negligence as prerequisite to liability

              § 331. --negligence of a contractor or servant

              § 332. ----supervision and control by the governmental entity

              § 333. liability for a dangerous or defective condition without negligence

              § 334. nuisance

              § 335. trespass

              b. particular circumstances or facilities

              § 336. storm sewers

              § 337. cave-in or settling of earth; flooding

              § 338. inadequate guards or warning signs

    4. maintenance and repair of sewers and drains

              a. liability for negligence

              § 339. generally

              § 340. governmental/proprietary distinction

              § 341. discretionary/ministerial distinction

              § 342. standard of care

              § 343. checklist; facts and circumstances tending to show negligence or damages

              b. liability for nuisance

              § 344. generally

              § 345. what constitutes a nuisance

              c. particular circumstances or facilities

              § 346. construction or use by third party; control by a governmental entity

              § 347. --multiple government entities

              § 348. gases, odors, or other harmful substances; explosions

              d. obstruction or clogging of drains or sewers

              (1).. in general

              § 349. generally

              § 350. governmental/proprietary distinction

              § 351. statutory liability

              § 352. necessity of establishing negligence

              § 353. duty to prevent obstructions

              § 354. --duty to inspect

              § 355. --duty to remove obstructions

              § 356. --res ipsa loquitur

              § 357. nuisance

              § 358. effect of the government's notice of an obstruction

              § 359. --effect of lack of notice; constructive notice

              (2).. particular circumstances or facilities

              § 360. private drains or sewers

              § 361. natural watercourse as a drain

              § 362. obstructions authorized or made by the municipality

              § 363. obstructions created by third persons

              § 364. unusual or extraordinary rainfall

    5. flooding; wrongful discharge of water or sewage

              § 365. generally

              § 366. negligence or inverse condemnation

              § 367. --proving negligence

              § 368. nuisance and trespass

              § 369. statutory provisions

              § 370. contributory negligence of the landowner

    6. sewage disposal plants

              a. generally

              § 371. negligence

              § 372. taking or damaging property without compensation; inverse condemnation

              b. liability for nuisance

              (1).. in general

              § 373. generally

              § 374. effect of statutory authority

              § 375. remedies

              § 376. --injunctive relief for an anticipatory nuisance

              (2).. particular circumstances or factors affecting liability

              § 377. location

              § 378. private or public character of the nuisance

              § 379. harm to sensibilities

              § 380. offensive or harmful odors

              § 381. discharge of sewage on land

              § 382. pollution of a watercourse

              § 383. contribution to the nuisance by third parties

              § 384. prescriptive rights

    7. watercourses, surface waters, ponds, and reservoirs

              a. in general

              § 385. generally

              § 386. ponds, reservoirs, and the like

              b. surface waters

              § 387. generally; drainage of surface waters

              § 388. duty to provide drainage of surface waters

              § 389. flood control as governmental or discretionary activity; immunity

              § 390. casting water onto private property

              § 391. --flooding from new construction or improvements

              § 392. ----construction that gathers water into a body

              § 393. ----liability based on the issuance of a construction permit

  f. crime prevention and control

    1. in general

              § 394. liability

              § 395. immunity

              § 396. general duty/special duty dichotomy

              § 397. emergency doctrine

    2. respondeat superior as basis of liability

              § 398. generally

              § 399. scope of employment, duty, or authority, generally

              § 400. unlawful or intentionally wrongful acts

              § 401. acts beyond territorial limits of governmental body

              § 402. acts of off-duty or suspended officer

              § 403. --effect of on-call status or 24-hour duty

    3. condition of station or building of law enforcement agency or department

              § 404. generally

    4. hiring, training, and supervision of officers

              § 405. hiring of officers; failure to discharge incompetent or dangerous officers

              § 406. training and supervision of officers

    5. failure to provide protection from crime

              a. in general

              § 407. general duty/special duty dichotomy

              § 408. --public policy considerations

              § 409. immunity

              b. duty from special relationship to crime victim

              § 410. generally

              § 411. foreseeability of harm to crime victim

              § 412. request for protection by threatened crime victim

              § 413. --failure to respond to emergency call "911" dispatch systems

              § 414. promise or assurance of protection by officer or governmental body

              § 415. undertaking protection by officer or governmental body

              § 416. other acts of officer or governmental body adversely affecting crime victim

              § 417. status of crime victim; beneficiary of order of protection

              § 418. --informant or person aiding or cooperating with officers

    6. failure to investigate crime

              § 419. generally

              § 420. collection, analysis, or preservation of evidence

    7. arrest, detention, or imprisonment of person

              a. in general

              § 421. generally

              § 422. aiding officer in making arrest

              b. failure to arrest or detain person

              § 423. generally

              § 424. negligent release of person in custody

              § 425. failure to warn of release of person in custody

              § 426. drunk or intoxicated driver; test for special duty

              § 427. --test for discretionary function

              c. false arrest, detention, or imprisonment

              § 428. generally

    8. use of excessive force

              a. governmental bodies subject to liability

              § 429. municipalities, counties, and towns; immunity or nonliability

              § 430. --liability

              § 431. states

              b. particular bases of liability for use of excessive force

              § 432. knowledge of officer's violent propensities

              § 433. injury to innocent bystanders; liability of municipal corporations

              § 434. --liability of state

    9. use of motor vehicles and other transportation facilities

              a. in general

              § 435. generally

              § 436. duty and standard of care; emergency doctrine

              § 437. questions of law or fact

              § 438. motor vehicle or facility of transportation within statute

              b. chase or pursuit of suspected criminal or law-breaker

              § 439. generally; duty and standard of care

              § 440. liability for conduct of third party

              § 441. injury or damage to innocent pedestrian, occupant of parked vehicle, or vehicle

              § 442. injury or damage to innocent occupant of moving vehicle, or vehicle

              § 443. --particular circumstances of liability

              c. other particular bases of liability

              § 444. injury or damage from police roadblocks

              § 445. injury or damage from police commandeering of private vehicles

              § 446. injury or damage to person whose vehicle police stopped; conduct of third parties

  g. fire prevention and control

    1. immunity, generally

              § 447. immunity for governmental functions

              § 448. immunity under statute

              § 449. --immunity for discretionary functions

              § 450. statutory waiver of immunity

    2. failure to provide fire protection

              § 451. generally; general duty/special duty dichotomy

              § 452. --when special relationship arises

              § 453. immunity under statute

    3. failure to extinguish fires

              § 454. generally; discretionary function immunity

              § 455. other immunity under statute

    4. failure to inspect property and prevent fire hazards

              § 456. generally; general duty/special duty dichotomy

              § 457. checklist of facts showing negligent fire inspection

              § 458. absolute immunity under statute

    5. use of fire control vehicles and other means of transportation

              § 459. generally

              § 460. emergency privileges

              § 461. --duty of care under emergency privileges

              § 462. liability under statute for negligent use of fire vehicle

              § 463. checklist of facts showing negligence of driver of fire vehicle

              § 464. negligence of nondriver occupant of fire vehicle

              § 465. negligent operation of fireboat

    6. adequacy of water supply or pressure for fire control

              a. in general

              § 466. generally

              § 467. water supply furnished under contract with water company

              b. municipal ownership and operation of water supply

              § 468. generally; governmental function or discretionary function immunity

              § 469. other statutory immunity

              § 470. --water mains

              § 471. --fire hydrants

    7. other particular matters affecting immunity or liability

              § 472. obstruction of sidewalks and streets

              § 473. spread of fire purposely and lawfully kindled

              § 474. outside service by local fire department

              § 475. duty to members of fire department, generally

              § 476. volunteer firemen

              § 477. --volunteer fire company as government entity

              § 478. stations and buildings

  h. operation of public schools

    1. exceptions and limitations affecting immunity or liability

              a. statutes affecting immunity or liability

              § 479. generally

              § 480. liability for dangerous conditions of public property

              § 481. --"safe place" statute

              § 482. liability for care, custody, and control of real property

              § 483. --immunity from liability for injury from use of public grounds

              § 484. liability for operation of motor vehicles

              § 485. liability for acts of employees

              § 486. "save harmless" statute

              § 487. immunity for discretionary functions

              b. particular functions as governmental or proprietary

              § 488. maintenance, repair, and construction of premises

              § 489. manual or vocational training; shop work

              § 490. physical education

              § 491. school athletics

              § 492. transportation

              § 493. use of facilities for non-school purposes

              § 494. --use as proprietary in nature

              § 495. hiring and supervision of teachers

              § 496. miscellaneous circumstances

              c. nuisances resulting in injury or damage

              § 497. personal injury or death; nuisance exception recognized

              § 498. --nuisance exception not recognized

              § 499. property damage

              d. active or positive wrongs; willful or intentional misconduct

              § 500. generally

    2. liability under particular circumstances

              a. supervision of students

              § 501. duty to supervise

              § 502. standard of care

              § 503. --school safety statute or regulation

              § 504. foreseeability of injury

              § 505. --acting on directions of teacher; errands

              § 506. proximate cause; acts of fellow pupils

              § 507. --possibility of prevention

              § 508. --defenses

              § 509. particular times or class periods when injury occurred; before or during school hours

              § 510. --after school hours

              b. condition of buildings or equipment

              § 511. generally

              § 512. status of plaintiff as affecting nature of duty of care

              § 513. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              § 514. injury or damage from errors in building plans

              § 515. injury or damage from improper maintenance; particular places or facilities

              § 516. --evidence and burden of proof

              c. condition of grounds, walks, and playgrounds

              (1).. in general

              § 517. generally

              § 518. injury caused by independent contractor's work

              § 519. particular conditions; condition of surface

              § 520. --guardrails, fences, lighting, or like protective measures

              § 521. --inherently dangerous objects or conditions

              § 522. --snow or ice

              § 523. --playground equipment

              (2).. particular factors affecting liability

              § 524. necessity of establishing negligence or actionable wrong

              § 525. notice or knowledge of defect or hazard; prior accidents or injuries

              § 526. status of plaintiff

              § 527. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              § 528. safe place statute

              d. use of premises and equipment for other than school purposes

              § 529. generally

              § 530. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              § 531. status of users as invitees, licensees, or trespassers

              § 532. --lessees

              § 533. liability for injuries sustained in particular premises

              e. transportation of students

              (1).. in general

              § 534. generally

              § 535. duty of supervision of students

              § 536. submission of duty as law or fact issue; practice guide

              (2).. particular factors affecting liability

              § 537. necessity of establishing negligence, generally

              § 538. violation of statute or regulation

              § 539. contributory negligence

              § 540. driver as independent contractor

              (3).. particular conditions and circumstances

              § 541. before or during boarding of school bus

              § 542. during transportation

              § 543. after alighting from school bus

              § 544. special trips

              f. physical education class

              (1).. in general

              § 545. generally

              § 546. foreseeability of harm

              § 547. proximate cause

              § 548. mandatory or required nature of activity

              § 549. peculiar characteristics or limitations of person injured

              § 550. instruction, direction, or supervision

              § 551. --evidence to consider

              § 552. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              § 553. dangerous premises or equipment

              (2).. particular activities

              § 554. indoor activities; games and exercises

              § 555. --use of equipment

              § 556. --physical contest between students

              § 557. outdoor activities

              g. school athletic events

              § 558. generally

              § 559. players or participants as injured parties

              § 560. spectators and other non-participants as injured parties

              § 561. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              h. chemistry experiments, shop work, and manual or vocational training

              (1).. in general

              § 562. generally

              § 563. statutory duty; safe place statute

              § 564. instruction, supervision, or warning

              § 565. protective clothing, devices, or equipment; safety regulations

              § 566. permission or authorization to use equipment

              § 567. contributory negligence and assumption of risk

              (2).. particular accidents or injuries

              § 568. accidents related to chemistry experiments

              § 569. accidents related to shop work, and manual or vocational training

              i. acts of fellow students

              § 570. generally

              § 571. factors indicating knowledge and foreseeability of risk

              § 572. standard of care during play periods or transportation

              § 573. injuries from fighting or personal assault

              § 574. injuries from horseplay, scuffling, and rough play

              j. criminal acts by non-students

              § 575. generally

              § 576. where special duty exists

              k. educational malpractice

              § 577. generally

              § 578. intentional or malicious torts

              § 579. misclassification or wrongful placement of student in special education program

              l. hiring or retaining incompetent or unsuitable teacher

              § 580. generally

    3. personal liability of school personnel for personal injury or death of student

              a. teachers

              § 581. liability incident to regular classroom teaching; physical education teachers

              § 582. --shop or vocational arts teachers

              § 583. --science or laboratory teachers

              § 584. --special education teachers or teachers of mentally handicapped

              § 585. liability incident to other activities

              b. school executive or administrative officers

              § 586. members of boards of education

              § 587. --personal liability for acts of employees or agents of board

              § 588. superintendent of schools

              § 589. principals

              c. other school employees

              § 590. school bus drivers

              § 591. playground supervisors

  i. other particular acts or omissions

    § 592. hiring, appointing, or discharging officers or employees

    § 593. --civil rights actions

    § 594. insecticide and vermin eradication

    § 595. destruction of weeds, grasses, and noxious growth

    § 596. celebrations

    § 597. levy or collection of taxes or assessments

    § 598. placement of minor for adoption, foster care, or other intervention

    § 599. --civil rights actions by parents

    § 600. --liability after taking custody and making placement or other intervention

    § 601. activities or property of state militia or national guard

    § 602. --liability assumed by federal government


v. practice and procedure

  a. in general; jurisdiction

    § 603. generally

    § 604. jurisdiction

    § 605. --effect of failure to promptly raise defense that immunity is a jurisdictional bar

    § 606. --review of jurisdictional issues

  b. venue

    § 607. generally

    § 608. waiver of venue

    § 609. exceptions to home venue privilege

  c. parties

    § 610. generally; joinder of joint tortfeasors as defendants

    § 611. joinder of joint tortfeasors

    § 612. joinder of officer, agent, or employee as defendant

    § 613. joinder of third-party defendants; impleader

    § 614. joinder of liability insurer; subrogation claims

  d. pleading; process and service

    1. in general

              § 615. generally

              § 616. process and service

    2. complaint

              § 617. sufficiency of complaint, generally

              § 618. allegations in avoidance of immunity

              § 619. allegations of notice of claim

              § 620. --allegations of rejection, denial, or delay of claim

    3. answer

              § 621. defenses of governmental body; immunity

              § 622. absence of claim of insufficient service

              § 623. absence of notice of claim

    4. amendment of pleadings

              § 624. generally

              § 625. allegations in avoidance of immunity

              § 626. allegations of notice of claim

              § 627. allegations of immunity as defense

  e. evidence

    § 628. generally

    § 629. question of law or fact

    § 630. presumptions and burden of proof

    § 631. --res ipsa loquitur

  f. damages

    1. in general

              § 632. generally

              § 633. interest on damages; prejudgment interest

    2. statutory limitation on amount and nature of damages

              a. in general

              § 634. generally

              § 635. validity of damage limitation

              § 636. --equal protection

              § 637. --right of access to courts or remedies

              § 638. limit as self-executing and jurisdictional; waiver

              § 639. limit applicable to single claim, occurrence, or party

              § 640. --derivative claim or representative party

              § 641. limit applicable prospectively or retroactively

              b. limit applicable to damages recoverable or recovered; apportionment

              § 642. generally

              § 643. satisfaction or contribution

              § 644. collateral sources of recovery

              § 645. costs and interest

              c. jury instructions; claims and evidence

              § 646. limit as restricting content of jury instructions

              § 647. limit as restricting claims and evidence submitted

    3. exemplary or punitive damages

              § 648. generally

              § 649. tort claims acts or other statutes

              § 650. --prospective or retroactive application

              § 651. public policy considerations affecting recovery

              § 652. elements for recovery

              § 653. double or treble damages under statutes

  g. judgment

    § 654. generally; conclusive effect

    § 655. enforcement and payment; post-judgment interest



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